Balana fort was built by the Kingdom of Kandy near Alagalla Mountain Range, Sri Lanka. The fort was functioned as a strategic rock fortress and an outpost to Kandyan kingdom
When the English established themselves in Kandy, they started tea and coffee plantations in the area of the Colombo-Kandy railway line, which has cut through tunnels in the mountains.
Kadugannawa Pass is a pierced rock in the Kadugannawa climb on the Kandy-Colombo road. In 1820s when British built the Kandy-Colombo road they pierced a rock at the Kadugannawa Pass instead of blasting it away or simply baypassing it, as the new road does today. An explanation is, that this Kadugannawa tunnel was a symbol. The tunnel is said to have been created to fulfill an old Sinhalese prophecy that there is no way to foreigners to rule Kandy, unless they pierce the mountains. The British were the first foreign power to occupy Kandy permanently. Thus, the British went out of their way to include a tunnel on the road. Regrettably, this nice story is disputed, as the Kurunegala tunnel is claimed to have been constructed earlier (in 1823) to fulfill the prophetic saying.
Under the direction of William Francis Dawson the first modern highway Colombo – Kandy Road was built in 1820 and William Francis Dawson died before the completion of the project. For the memory of William Francis Dawson the Dawson Tower was built in Kadugannawa.
Kadugannawa Ambalama is a historic wayside rest that is found – on the left, when traveling from Colombo to Kandy, a few meters before the Kadugannawa U turn at Kadugannawa pass. Built during the early 18th century which is about 200 years old now. This ambalama was built during the English colonial rule of Ceylon.